Sunday, February 19, 2012

The Most: Related to Plants

1.         Commonest grass
Cynodon dactylon (doob), Gramineae
2.         Deadliest plant
Ricinus communis has seeds rich in poison, ‘ricin’ which is about 6000 times more poisonous than cyanide and 12,000 times more poisonous than rattle snake venom.
3.         Deepest Roots
A Wild Fig tree at Echo Caves, near Ohrigstad, Mpumalanga, South Africa has roots reaching 400 feet making it the deepest a tree’s roots have penetrated.
4.         Densest root
Secale cereale (Rye): Graminae
5.         Fastest growing flowering plant
Tropical species of bamboo reach 100 ft just in 3 months.
6.         Fastest growing non-flowering plant
The brown alga Pacific giant kelp or Macrocystis pyrifera grows 18 inches per day
7.         Fastest Growing Tree
In 1974, it was noted that an Albizzia falcata in Sabah, Malaysia had grown 35 feet and 3 inches in 13 months: an approximate of 1.1 inches per day.
8.         Fastest reproducing flower plant
Wolffia microscopica reproduces vegetatively just within 30 hrs.
9.         Fastest trapdoor on a plant
Bladderwort, Utricularia vulgaris, trapping process occurs with about 1/60 of a second roughly the speed of a daylight camera shutter setting
10.       Flowering plants at highest altitude
Ermaria and Ranunculus lobatus (21,000 ft)
11.       Greatest Base Diameter
Waterfall Tree - Alder Creek Grove - 57 feet (17 m) - tree with enormous basal buttress on very steep ground.
Tunnel Tree - Atwell Mill Grove - 57 feet (17 m) - tree with a huge flared base, that has burned all the way through
12.       Greatest Girth
In the late 18th century a European Chestnut known as the Tree of the Hundred Horses on Mount Etna in Sicily, in Italy had a circumference of 190 feet. It has since separated into three parts.
13.       Greatest Mean Diameter at Breast Height
General Grant - Grant Grove - 29.0 feet (8.8 m)
14.       Hardest and heaviest medicinal wood
Lignum iron wood tree, Guaiacum officinale produce produces with specific gravity of 1.37. Lignum or ‘wood of life’ gets its name from the medicinal properties of sweet smelling resin.
15.       Heaviest wood (India)
Acacia sundra, Hardwichia birata
16.       Heaviest wood of world
Guaicum officinale
17.       Highest calorific value
Persea americana (Lauraceae); 741 calories per pound.
18.       Highest yielding cereal (grain) crop
Maize (Zea mays)
19.       Inflorescence with high temperature
Lysichiton kamtschutkensis
20.       Largest acellular plant (or unicellular)
Acetabularia (green marine alga; 10 cm long)
21.       Largest algae
Macrocystis perifera
22.       Largest amount of protein
23.       Largest and widest cultivated crop
Rice (Oryza sativa)
24.       Largest Angiosperm family
25.       Largest angiospermic parasite
Santalum (Sandal wood)
26.       Largest archegonium
In bryophyte (mosses)
27.       Largest bamboo
Dendrocalamus giganteus
28.       Largest Banyan tree
In Indian Botanical Garden, Howrah. (more than 200 yrs old; circumference of crown exceeds 400 m; It has more than 1600 prop roots)
29.       Largest bean
Woody vines, lianas or monkey ladder or “escalera de mono” (in Costa Rica language), Entida gigas has 5 ft long pods. A pea pod looks like miniature when compared to it.
30.       Largest bryophyte
Dawsonia (70 cm), Fontinalis (Brook moss)
31.       Largest bud
32.       Largest cactus
Cereus giganteus
33.       Largest chromosome
Trillium govanianum (30 µm)
34.       Largest cotyledons
Capsela bursa pustoris (Shepherd’s purse)
35.       Largest diameter of a plant
Cestanea sativa (167 ft, tree of hundred horses), Taxodium mucronatum (100-125 ft).
36.       Largest divided leaves
African palm, Raphia regalis has pinnate leaves up to 80 ft long
37.       Largest egg
38.       Largest flower
Rafflesia arnoldi or Devil’s goblet (total root parasite; 1m diameter, 15 kg)
39.       Largest flower of India
Sapria (total root parasite)
40.       Largest flower orchid
Phagmipedium cauclatum
41.       Largest flying seed
Whirling nut, Gyrocarpus
42.       Largest fruit
Lodoicea maldivica (Double coconut)
43.       Largest fungi
Ganoderma (wood fungus)
44.       Largest gametophytic plant
Dawsonia (moss)
45.       Largest Girth
Waterfall Tree - Alder Creek Grove - 155 feet (47 m) - tree with enormous basal buttress on very steep ground
46.       Largest grass
Bamboo (Bambusa)
47.       Largest growing tree
Albizia falcate
48.       Largest herb (herbaceous tree)
49.       Largest herbaceous fruit
Giant pumpkin, Cucurbita maxima reported from Pennsylvania weighed 1337 pounds.
50.       Largest hitchhiking fruit (cling seed)
Proboscidea parviflora where each capsule fruit releases 40 black seeds. Each seed is about 38 cm long and bear sharp claws called ‘devil’s claws or elephant tusks.
51.       Largest inflorescence
Amorphophallus titanium, Agave (12 m). Puya raimondii has about 30 ft tall inflorescence bearing about 8000 white blossoms.
52.       Largest leaf (in diameter)
Victoria amazonica (V. regia or amazon lily; 5-6 ft diameter)
53.       Largest Limb
Arm Tree - Atwell Mill, East Fork Grove - 12.8 feet (3.9 m) in diameter
54.       Largest number of flowers
Talipot palm, Corypha umbraculifera is about 10 m tall with millions of flowers per inflorescence.
55.       Largest orchid
Grammatophyllum speciosum
56.       Largest ovule
Cycas thourasii
57.       Largest pollen grain (in diameter)
Mirabilis (4’O’ clock plant); 250 µm in diameter
58.       Largest pteridophyte
Alsophila, Cyathea (Tree ferna)
59.       Largest seed
Lodoicea maldivica or double coconut (native of Seychelles). Single seed 12 inch (30 cm) long weighing 18 kg.
60.       Largest seed cones
A gymnosperm, Lepidozamia about 0.9 m long and weighing about 45 kg.
61.       Largest sperm
62.       Largest sperm of plant
Zamia roezhii (0.4 mm). Visible to naked eyes and has several spiral bands of 20,000 to 40,000 cilia.
63.       Largest spreading fungi
Armillaria fungus. Single thallus can spread to area of about 100 acres of forest land.
64.       Largest spreading tree
Ficus benghalensis (Banyan)
65.       Largest tree (Gymnosperm)
Sequoia gigantea ( Giant red wood; about 13-16 m in diameter)
66.       Largest tree bearing fruit
Jackfruit, Artocarpus heterophyllum is about 3 ft in size weighing 34 kg. the fruits are known to develop directly on tree trunks called cauliflory.
67.       Largest undivided leaves
Amazonian palm, Manicaria saccifera has leaves about 30 ft long.
68.       Largest water storage tree
African plant baobab, Adansonia digitata has the capacity to store 30,000 gallons of water.
69.       Largest winged seed
The climbing gourd, Alsomitra macrocarpa
70.       Largest worst smelling blossoms
Malaysian corpse floral arum, Amorphophallus titanum
71.       Lightest wood
Balsa (Ochroma pyramidale)
72.       Longest creeper
Elephant creeper (Entada pursaethia)
73.       Longest fibre
Linum usitatissimum (Flax or alsi)
74.       Longest leaf
Raphia vinifera (50 ft)
75.       Longest lifespan
Larrea tridentata (South West California, USA, 11,300 yrs)
76.       Longest plant cell
Fibre cell of Boehmeria nivea (ramie; about 55 cm in length)- Sclerenchyma fibres
77.       Longest plant embryo
Lodoicea maldivica or double coconut
78.       Longest pollen grain
Zostera (2500 µm long)
79.       Longest style
Maize (Zea mays)
80.       Longest travelling seeds
Seeds of Entida gigas are thrown miles away by bursting pods.
81.       Major source of sugar
Beet root (Beta vulgaris). Provide 60% of total sugar
82.       Maximum fruits are provided by family
83.       Maximum life span of a tree
Macrozamia (10,000 yrs); Dracaena (8000 yrs)
84.       Maximum longevity in a seed
Nelumbo (lotus), about 1000 yrs
85.       Maximum number of chromosomes in Angiosperm
Poa litorosa (2n= 266)
86.       Maximum number of chromosomes in plants
Ophioglossum reticulatum (2n= 1262)
87.       Maximum ovules per locule in the ovary
88.       Maximum vegetables are provided by family
89.       Minimum number of chromosomes in Angiosperm
Haplopappus gracilis (2n=4)
90.       Minimum number of chromosomes in plants
Mucor (2n=2)
91.       Most advanced family
Compositae (in dicots) and Graminae (in monocots)
92.       Most Dangerous Tree
The Manchineel Tree of the Caribbean coast and the Florida Everglades is a species that secretes an exceptionally poisonous and acid sap. Upon contact to the skin, a break out of blisters would occur. In the occasions where there is contact to the eye, a person can be blinded, and a bite of its fruit causes blistering and severe pain. This tree has been feared ever since the Spanish explorers came to the Americas in the 16th century.
93.       Most durable wood
Tectonia grandis (Teak)
94.       Most Massive Tree
The "Lindsey Creek Tree", a Coast Redwood with a minimum trunk volume of 90,000 cubic feet and a minimum total mass of 3630 tons was the most massive known tree until it blew over in a storm in 1905. The most massive living tree is "General Sherman", a giant sequoia found in the Sequoia National Park in California. It is 275 feet tall with a girth of 102 feet and 8 inches.
95.       Most painful spines
The trichomes of true nettle, Urtica dioica (Bitchu butti) is rich in chemicals acetyl choline, histamine and hydroxytryptamins causing deadliest skin reactions to animals. The apex of trichome is siliceous which breaks open in our skin
96.       Most poisonous fungi
Amanita phalloides
97.       Most spreading plant
Gaylussacia brachyera
98.       Oldest cultivated crop
Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
99.       Oldest living fossil
Ginkgo biloba. 1,50,000 centuries ago.
100.    Oldest plant clone
Lomaticia Tasmania has adult sterile triploid plant incapable of producing seeds. These plants have been estimated to be 43,000 years old and reproducing only of vegetatively by suckers.
101.    Oldest tree
Larrea tridentata (S.W California; 11,300 yrs); The Mein Yuch, Pinus longaeva (sleeping moon; 4128 yrs).
Found in the Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park in California, the oldest tree recognized is a Redwood known as Eternal God. The tree is believed to be 12,000 years old, although it is argued as being only 7,000 years old, which still makes it the oldest.
102.    Oldest viable seed
Arctic lupine (Lupinus arcticus). Discovered from lemming burrow in frozen arctic tundra. 10,000 yrs old. It is now germinated and flowered by scientists.
103.    Plant having most beautiful flowers
Flame amherstia
104.    Sharpest spines
Opuntia bigelovii (Jumping cholla) has sharpest spines causing deadly pain as they break down in our skin after piercing.
105.    Slowest Growing Tree
A White Cedar located in the Great Lakes area of Canada, has only grown to less than 4 inches tall during its 155 years.
106.    Smallest acellular organism and plant
Mycoplasma gallisepticum (PPLO)
107.    Smallest algae
Chlamydomonas (green algae)
108.    Smallest angiosperm
Lemna (Duckweed)
109.    Smallest angiospermic parasite
Arceuthobium minutissimum (stem parasite of Pinus excelsa)
110.    Smallest archegonium
In gymnosperms
111.    Smallest bryophyte
Zoopsis (microscopic), ephimerum
112.    Smallest chromosome
A fungus (0.025 µm)
113.    Smallest flower
Wolffia microscopica (W. arrhiza; 0.1 mm)- Angiospermic
114.    Smallest flowering plant
A rootless angiosperm, Wolffia globossa can fit into an eye of an ordinary sewing needle and is 0.6 mm and 0.3 mm wide. The plant is 1,65,000 times shorter than tallest Eucalyptus.
115.    Smallest fruit
Wolffia arrhiza. Weighing only 70 micrograms.
116.    Smallest fungi
Yeast (Saccharomyces)
117.    Smallest gametophytic plant
118.    Smallest gymnosperm
Zamia pygmia
119.    Smallest gymnosperm
Zamia roezlii is about 0.4 mm in length just visble to an unaided eye.
120.    Smallest leaves
Scale like leaf called prophyllum is just 0.3 mm to 0.5 mm in length belonging to Wolffia bovealis and Azolla filicules (water fern) leaves are just 1 mm long.
121.    Smallest monocot plant
Galanthus nivalis (Snowdrops)
122.    Smallest orchid
Bulbophyllum minutissimum
123.    Smallest pollen grain
Myosotis (2.5-3.5 µm)- Orchid
124.    Smallest pteridophyte
Azolla (water fern)
125.    Smallest seeds
Coral root orchid, Corallorhiza maculata has a seed weighing about one 35 millionth of an ounce (1/35,000,000 micrograms). Some seeds are just 1/300th of an inch whereas our vision 20/20 is just under 0.1 mm. they appear as dust particles.
126.    Smallest tree
Salix (dwarf willow), found in Tundra region
127.    Strongest gymnosperm wood (soft wood)
Cedrus deodara
128.    Tallest and fastest growing bamboo
Bambusa arundinaceae
129.    Tallest Tree
Tallest gymnosperm: Sequoia sempervirens (coast red wood; about 111.25 m height. Found in red wood park of California)
Tallest or largest angiosperm: Eucalyptus ragnans (114 m)
Tallest monocot plant: Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera)

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