Saturday, February 18, 2012

Scientists and their Theories

Theories, Principles, Rules or Laws
Proposed by
1.           ‘All plants & animals are composed of cells’
Dutrochet H.J
2.           ‘Birds are glorified reptiles’
3.           ‘Omnis cellula e cellula’
R. Virchow
4.           ‘Protoplasm is the physical basis of life’
5.           “Abiogenesis first, but biogenesis ever since”
6.           Allen’s law
7.           Apical cell theory of apical meristems
8.           Aquatic origin of life- Theory
Thales (624-548 BC)
9.           Artificial parthenogenesis- Theory
10.         Artificial System of Classification
11.         Axial gradient theory
12.         Balance theory of sex in Drosophila
Bridges G.B (1916)
13.         Binomial nomenclature
14.         Biogenesis (= Theory of movement)
Robert Brown
15.         Biogenesis (terrestrial origin) - Theory
Francesco Redi (experimentally proved by Louis Pasteur in 1862)
16.         Biogenetic law- Theory
E. Haeckel
17.         Biological species concept
Ernst Mayer and Dobzensky
18.         Cascade effect
19.         Catastrophism- Theory
20.         Cell theory
Schleiden and Schwann
21.         Central Dogma of Molecular biology
Crick F.H.C
22.         Chargaff’s rule
23.         Chemical evolution (Biochemical evolution or Chemogeny or molecular evolutiuon or Organic evolution) - Theory
Alexander I. Oparin (1923)
Supported by J.B.S Haldane (1928)
24.         Chemosynthetic theory of life
Oparin and Haldane
25.         Chiasma type theory
Janssens F.A
26.         Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance
Sutton and Boveri
27.         Chromosomal theory of linkage
Morgan T.H and Castle
28.         Cohesion theory of ascent of sap
Dixon and Jolly
29.         Conditioned reflex
I.P Pavlov
30.         Contagion- Theory
31.         Continental drift theory
32.         Cosmozoic theory (Theory of extraterrestrial origin or theory of panspermia)
Richer (1865)
33.         Coupling and Repulsion theory
Bateson and Punnet
34.         Descent with modification
35.         Encasement theory
36.         Encasement theory
Charles Bonnet
37.         Epigenesis- Theory
C.F Wolff
38.         Fertilizin- Antifertilizin theory
Lillie F.R (1914)
39.         Five kingdom classification
40.         Fluid mosaic model
Singer and Nicholson
41.         Gause hypothesis (Competitive exclusion principle Hardin)
Gause (1937)
42.         Gene Theory (Linkage of gene)
Morgan T.H (1910)
43.         Genic balance theory of sex determination
C.B. Bridges
44.         Germ layer theory
Von Baer
45.         Germ theory of disease
Louis Pasteur
46.         Germplasm theory or Germline theory
August Weismann
47.         Hardy Weinberg’s law
Hardy G.S and Wilhelm Weinberg (1908)
48.         Histogen theory of apical meristem
49.         Hypothesis of Muscle contraction
Huxley and Hanson (1954)
50.         Idea of Homoeostasis
Claude Bernard
51.         Induced fit Hypothesis of enzyme
52.         Inheritance of acquired characters- Theory
Lamarck Jean Baptiste de (1802)
53.         Law of conservation of energy
Von Mayer
54.         Law of minimum
55.         Lock and Key Hypothesis
Emil Fischer
56.         Materialistic theory
57.         Mechanistic theory
58.         Mutation theory of evolution
Hugo de Vries (1901)
59.         Natural selection and Origin of species
Alfred Russel Wallace (1858) & Charles Robert Darwin (1859)
60.         Omnis cellula e cellula
Rudolf Virchow
61.         One cistron-one polypeptide theory
C. Yanofsky
62.         One gene-one enzyme theory
Beadle and Tatum
63.         Ontogeny recapitulates (repeats) phylogeny
E. Haeckel
64.         Oparin-Haldane Hypothesis (Primary abiogenesis)
A.I. Oparin and J.B.S Haldane
65.         Operon concept of gene action
Jacob and Monod
66.         Opsonisation- Theory
Wright and Doughlass
67.         Orthogenesis- Theory
Ernst Haeckel
68.         Pangenesis- Theory
69.         Particulate theory
70.         Preformation theory
Jan Swammerdam
71.         Principles of inheritance
Mendel (1865)
72.         Protoplasm theory
73.         Protoplasmic theory
M. Schultze
74.         Recapitulation theory or Biogenetic law
Von Baer (1828).
It was called as Biogenetic law by Ernst Haeckel (1868).
75.         Semen (Fluid) theory
Empedocles (504-433 BC)
76.         Sexual selection- Theory
Julian Huxley (1924)
77.         Sol gel theory of Amoeba Locomotion
Hyman, Pantin and Mast
78.         Special creation- Theory
Falter Saurezi
79.         Spontaneous generation (Abiogenesis/Autogenesis) - Theory
Anaximander (B.C 611-547)
Aristotle (B.C 384-322)
Epicurus (B.C 342-271)
Helmont (1577-1644)
80.         Stelar theory of plants
Tiegham and Douliot
81.         Survival of the fittest- Theory
82.         Telom theory of Pteridophyta
83.         Tunica corpus theory
84.         Vapour and fluid theory of heredity
85.         Vital theory
J.C. Bose


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